Physical activity, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia: 28 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study

BMJ 2017;357:j2709

This prospective cohort study aims to test the hypotheses that physical activity in midlife is not associated with a reduced risk of dementia and that the preclinical phase of dementia is characterised by a decline in physical activity.  The study finds no evidence of a neuroprotective effect of physical activity. Previous findings showing a lower risk of dementia in physically active people may be attributable to reverse causation—that is, due to a decline in physical activity levels in the preclinical phase of dementia.

Click here to view the full text article.  This paper is Open Access.

Guided graded exercise self-help plus specialist medical care versus specialist medical care alone for chronic fatigue syndrome (GETSET): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

The Lancet, 22 June

Graded exercise therapy is an effective and safe treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, but it is therapist intensive and availability is limited. This study aimed to test the efficacy and safety of graded exercise delivered as guided self-help.  The study finds that GES is a safe intervention that might reduce fatigue and, to a lesser extent, physical disability for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. These findings need confirmation and extension to other health-care settings.

Click here to view this article.  This article is open-access.

Prenatal antidepressant use and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: population based cohort study

BMJ 2017;357:j2350

This population based cohort study aims to assess the potential association between prenatal use of antidepressants and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring.  The findings suggest that the association between prenatal use of antidepressants and risk of ADHD in offspring can be partially explained by confounding by indication of antidepressants. If there is a causal association, the size of the effect is probably smaller than that reported previously.

Click here to read the full text paper.

Modelling foetal exposure to maternal smoking using hepatoblasts from pluripotent stem cells

Lucendo-Villarin, B., Filis, P., Swortwood, M.J. et al. Archives of Toxicology (2017). doi:10.1007/s00204-017-1983-0

This study looks at the effect of cigarette smoking on the developing liver cells of foetuses whose mothers smoke with a new approach using embryonic stem cells.  The study showed that a chemical cocktail – similar to that found in cigarettes – harmed foetal liver health more than individual components.

Click here to view the full text article.

 

Cohort profile: the Scottish Research register SHARE. A register of people interested in research participation linked to NHS data sets

BMJ Open, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2017

Recruitment to trials is often difficult. Many trials fail to meet recruitment targets resulting in underpowered studies which waste resources and the time of those who participated. While there is evidence that many people are willing to take part in research, particularly if it involves a condition from which they suffer, researchers are unable to easily contact such people often relying on busy clinicians to identify them. Many clinicians perceive themselves as too busy to take part in research activities. The Scottish Health Research Register SHARE adopts an approach which asks the public to consent to their data held in National Health Service databases to be used to determine their suitability for research projects. Additionally, participants can consent for spare blood, left after routine venepuncture to be automatically identified in the laboratory and stored for future research studies.

Click here to view the full text article.

Access to the premium version of the TRIP database

Lancashire Care Library and Information Service

Access to the premium version of the Trip database (Trip Pro) will continue for employees of the NHS in England for another year until 31st December 2017.  Trip Pro is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

If you would like to have access to Trip Pro please contact the Library for the login details.

Click here for further information about Trip.

Some psychosis cases an ‘immune disorder’

BBC News, 8 December 2016

Some patients sectioned with psychotic conditions, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, may actually have a treatable immune disorder, say Oxford University scientists.

A study in the Lancet Psychiatry suggests up to one in 11 cases of psychosis may involve antibodies attacking parts of the brain…

Click here to read the full story.