Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness

Cochrane Library, January 2017

This Cochrane Review finds very few trials have investigated TFPIs for individuals with SMI and PTSD.

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Prescribing roles for health professionals other than doctors

Cochrane Group, November 2016

The aim of this Cochrane review was to find out if prescribing by health professionals other than doctors delivers comparable outcomes to prescribing by doctors.  Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies from various countries.

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Birth cohort trends in the global epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in men and women: systematic review and metaregression

BMJ Open, October 2016

Historically, alcohol use and related harms are more prevalent in men than in women. However, emerging evidence suggests the epidemiology of alcohol use is changing in younger cohorts. The current study aimed to systematically summarise published literature on birth cohort changes in male-to-female ratios in indicators of alcohol use and related harms.  The study finds that the gap between male and female use of alcohol is closing, particularly in young adults.

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Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, June 2016

This Cochrane review aims to assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes.

The study found evidence of an effect of settings-based smoking policies on reducing smoking rates in hospitals and universities. In prisons, reduced mortality rates and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke were reported. However, the reviewers rated the evidence base as low quality. The study concludes that more robust studies assessing the evidence for smoking bans and policies in these important specialist settings are needed.

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BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants

BMJ, 4 May 2016

The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease.

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Methotrexate monotherapy and methotrexate combination therapy with traditional and biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis: abridged Cochrane systematic review and network meta-analysis

BMJ, 21 April 2016

This systematic review aims to compare methotrexate based disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in patients naive to or with an inadequate response to methotrexate.

The study concludes that triple therapy (methotrexate plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine) and most regimens combining biologic DMARDs with methotrexate were effective in controlling disease activity, and all were generally well tolerated in both methotrexate naive and methotrexate exposed patients.

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Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of dementia in clinically unevaluated people aged 65 and over in community and primary care populations

Cochrane Systematic Reviews, January 2016

This Cochrane Review finds that the MMSE contributes to a diagnosis of dementia in low prevalence settings, but should not be used in isolation to confirm or exclude disease. They recommend that future work evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of tests in the context of the diagnostic pathway experienced by the patient and that investigators report how undergoing the MMSE changes patient-relevant outcomes.

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