BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants

BMJ, 4 May 2016

The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease.

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Trajectory of body shape in early and middle life and all cause and cause specific mortality: results from two prospective US cohort studies

BMJ, 4 May 2016

This prospective cohort study aims to assess body shape trajectories in early and middle life in relation to risk of mortality.

The study finds that using the trajectory approach, heavy body shape from age 5 up to 50, especially the increase in middle life, was associated with higher mortality. In contrast, people who maintained a stably lean body shape had the lowest mortality. These results indicate the importance of weight management across the lifespan.

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Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of birth defects in Denmark: prospective, nationwide cohort study

BMJ, 6 January 2016

This prospective cohort study aims to research whether oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset is associated with an increased risk of major birth defects?

The study finds that oral contraceptive exposure just before or during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major birth defects.

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Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate future risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes: cohort study

BMJ, 11 November 2015

This prospective cohort study looks at whether it is possible to develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate the 10 year risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes aged 25-84 years.

The study concludes that patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of blindness and amputation but generally do not have accurate assessments of the magnitude of their individual risks. The new algorithms calculate the absolute risk of developing these complications over a 10 year period in patients with diabetes, taking account of their individual risk factors.

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Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

BMJ, 13 October 2015

The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort.  The study concludes that patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures should be discussed with patients for informed decisions making.

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Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study

BMJ, 1 September 2015

This cohort study aims to describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group.

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Light to moderate intake of alcohol, drinking patterns, and risk of cancer: results from two prospective US cohort studies

BMJ, 18 August 2015

This study, incorporating two US prospective cohort studies, aims to quantify risk of overall cancer across all levels of alcohol consumption among women and men separately, with a focus on light to moderate drinking and never smokers; and assess the influence of drinking patterns on overall cancer risk.

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